The Effectiveness of Concept Map instruction in mobile phones on Creativity of Nursing Students in Intensive Care Courses

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

4 School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran


Background: technology-based concept mapping is a subset of e-learning and is considered a selective strategy for providing information and educational skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of concept mapping instruction in mobile phones on the creativity of nursing students.
Methods: This study was a pretest posttest randomized controlled trial. Sixty eight senior nursing students were selected using the whole enumeration. They were divided equally into the experimental (n=34) and control groups (n=34) by stratified block randomization. In the experimental group, concept mapping instruction was carried out using mobile phones; however, the routine method was used in the control group. Students' creativity was measured by Abedi’s Creativity Test before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using the paired t-test and multivariate analysis of covariance.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics (p > 0.999).The mean total creativity score and the mean scores on all the subscales decreased in both groups in comparison to the pre-intervention scores. The changes in the scores of elaboration (p= 0.046), originality (p= 0.022), and total creativity (p= 0.036) showed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups, but there was not any significant difference between two groups in term of fluency (p = 0.08) and flexibility (p=0.143).
Conclusion: Although the easy access of learners to mobile phones made the use of this approach seem useful in students' education, further studies are recommended with higher sample sizes and other creativity assessment instruments.


1- Mahmoodi M.T, Maleki S, Sanisales Z. The impact of e-learning on creativity and learning in physiology course in nursing students of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Future Med Educ J. 2015; 5(4):25-29.
2- Vedenpää I, Lonka K. Teachers’ and teacher students’ conceptions of learning and creativity. Creative Education. 2014; 19; 5(20):1821-33.
3- Sadeghi-Gandomani H, Delaram M, Naseri-Brugeni N. Comparison of concept mapping and conventional teaching methods on creativity of nursing students. Medical Education and Development. 2014; 9(3):48-57.Persian.
4- Asurakkody TA, Shin SY. Innovative Behavior in Nursing Context: A Concept Analysis. Asian Nurs Res. 2018; 12(4): 237-44.
5- Kara, Innovation in Nursing Practices. Global Journal on Advances in Pure & Applied Sciences. 2015; 170-74. Available from:
6-Shahsavari Isfahani S, Hosseini MA, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Peyrovi H, Khanke H. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015; 17(2): e20895.
7- Mohammad T, Mahmoodi Sh, Maleki ZS. The Impact of E-Learning on Creativity and Learning in Physiology Course in Nursing Students of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Future Med Educ J.2015; 5(4):25-29.
8- Chan ZC. A systematic review of creative thinking/creativity in nursing education. Nurse Educ Today. 2013; 33(11): 1382-87.
9- Midgley K. Pre-registration student nurses perception of the hospital-learning environment during clinical placements. Nurse Educ Today. 2006; 26(4):338-45.
10- Haghgoo A, Karimy M, Rahmani Katigari M, Bolhasani M, Afsheh Gh, Jafari B. Comparison of Flipped Classroom and Conceptual Map on Students’Deliberate Practice Study Approach. Interdiscip J Virtual Learn Med Sci. 2019; 10(1):1-8.
11- Rasoul Zadeh NR, Gandomani HS, Delaram M, Yekta ZP. Comparing the Effect of concept mapping and conventional methods on nursing students’ practical skill score. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2015; 4(3):3-8.
12- Reiska P, Soika K, Möllits A, Rannikmäe M, Soobard R. Using Concept mapping method for assessing students’ scientific literacy. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2015; 177:352-7.
13-Akbari FD, Mofrad MN, Dabirian A. The effect of concept mapping on clinical decision making skills of ICU nurses. US National Library of Medicine enlisted journal. 2014; 7(4):312-15.
14- Kusnekoff J, Munz S, Titsworth S. Mobile Phones in the Classroom: Examining the Effects of Texting, Twitter, and Message Content on Student Learning. Communication Education. 2015; 64(3). 344-65.
15-Traxler, Distance Education and Mobile Learning: Catching Up, Taking Stock. Distance Education. 2010; 31(2): 129-33.
16-Brown TH. The role of m-learning in the future of e-learning in Africa? Presented at the 21st ICDE World Conference. 2003. (Cited 2012 Nov 11). Available from:
17-Wakefield J, Smith D. From Socrates to satellites: iPad learning in an undergraduate course. Creat Educ. 2012; 27; 3(05):643.
18- Ranieri M, Bruni I. Empowering creativity in young people through mobile learning: An investigation of creative practices of mobile media uses in and out of school. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning .2016; 5(3):17-33.
19- Hadjerrouit S. Developing web-based learning resources in school education: A user-centered approach. Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Learning and Learning Objects 2010; 6: 115-35.
20-Raisa b, Boman JA. Concept mapping: A strategy for teaching and evaluation in nursing. Nurse Education. 2006; 6(4): 199-206.
21-Huckabay LM. Clinical Reasoned judgment and the nursing process. Nurs Forum. 2009; 44(2): 72-8.
22- Ural E, Ercan O. The effects of web-based educational software enriched by concept maps on learning of structure and properties of matter. Journal of Baltic Science Education. 2015; 14(1):7-19.
23- Tutty J, Martin F. Effects of Practice Type in the Here and Now Mobile Learning. Journal of Educational Technology. 2014;11 (2); 17-27.
24- Mao C. Research on undergraduate students' usage satisfaction of mobile learning. Creat Educ. 2014; 5(8):614-18.
25- Lai D, Mao C. A study on factors affecting the mobile learning of undergraduate students in China. Creat Educ. 2014; 5(5): 372-75.
26- Salmani N, Dehghani Kh, Salimi T, Bagheri I. Effect of software designed by computer conceptual map method in mobile environment on learning level of nursing students. Bimonthly of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences. 2015; 8(5):275-80. Persian.
27- Chen CJ. Using Concept mapping instruction in mobile phone to learning English vocabulary. Creat Educ. 2014; 5(01):4-6.
28-Kim H, Suh E.E. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on
Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Asian Nurs Res.2018; 12: 17-25.
29- Lall P, Law GCY, Dunleavy G, Cotič Z, Car J. Influences on the Implementation of Mobile Learning for Medical and Nursing Education: Qualitative Systematic Review by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. JMIR.2019; 2 (2):e12895.
30- Abedi J.A. latent-Variable modeling approach to assessing reliability and validity of a creativity instrument. Creat Res J.2002; 14(2):267-76.
31-Hwang GJ, Wu CH, Kuo FR. Effects of Touch technology-based concept mapping on students' learning attitudes and perceptions. Educational Technology & Society. 2013; 16(3):274-85.
32-Gomes AP, Cavalheiro PD, Dias-Coelho UC, Siqueira-Batista R. The Role of Concept Maps in the Medical Education. Rev. Bras. Educ. Méd. 2011; 35(2):275-82.
33- Wu PH, Hwang GJ, Milrad M, Ke HR, Huang YM. An innovative concept map approach for improving students' learning performance with an instant feedback mechanism. Br J Educ Technol. 2012; 43(2):217-32.
34-Riley NR, Ahlberg M. Investigating the use of ICT-based concept mapping techniques on creativity in literacy tasks. J Comput Assist Learn. 2004; 20(4): 244-56.
35-Hossein Zadeh A, Mesrabadi J, Piri M. The relationship between creativity and academic achievement with performance in conceptual map based tests. (MSC thesis). Tabriz: Tarbiat Moalem University; 2011.