The quality of higher education is of great importance especially in medical education. Improving educational approaches, planning, and evaluation will improve students learning, which in turn, will lead to health promotion (1). Knowledge about the teaching process, cognitive and social theories of learning, as well as the perception of how to apply these theories in classrooms, is called pedagogical knowledge (2). This knowledge contributes to improving the quality of learning by professors. Therefore, it can be admitted that professors are intrinsically knowledge worker (3, 4), they produce and use knowledge and information to teach the students. As pedagogical knowledge workers, professors can share their experiences with other peers. However, professors are in isolation in classroom, faculty, and their group, which prevents of the development of knowledge (5). The results of a narrative study showed that in universities, in terms of professionalism and non-professionalism, content knowledge (CK) is usually considered, and most professors teach in the form of experiment and error with information gained from observing their own professors. Studies have shown that professors have described one of the most important ways to improve the knowledge of medical educators by sharing and organizing these educational experiences (6). This collection of processes a person uses to collect, organize, store, search, retrieve, and share knowledge in his daily activities is known as personal knowledge management (7).
Liebowitz and Wilcox (1997) emphasize the importance of knowledge management system in lifelong learning (8). According to Zhao (2010), knowledge management, by improving the professional development of instructors, seeks to make the knowledge available in their minds obvious (9). Knowledge management can help improve the quality of teaching by acquiring and sharing knowledge in teaching and learning (10). There are numerous studies in knowledge management of teachers such as the studies by Wang et al. (2018), Qiao et al. (2013), Wang and xu (2012), ZHAO and XIAO (2009), Yang (2008), Liu (11-15); however, it seems the term pedagogical knowledge management was first proposed by Akhterov et al. (2010). These researchers consider knowledge management as a system that provides the opportunity to use existing knowledge to decide on the strategic development of an educational process (16). In another study by the same researcher in 2013, the term “pedagogical knowledge management” was mentioned to analyze the structure of the knowledge management information system for professors of the technical school (17). Pedagogical knowledge management is managing pedagogical knowledge in all areas of the educational process, such as evaluation, teaching, learning experiences, classroom management, and etc. which provides the basis for effective teaching quality. However, a review of studies has shown that in practice and theory, pedagogical knowledge management in medical sciences has not been addressed. Clarifying the application of this concept can provide the basis for its use in practice. Therefore, we decided to extract and explain the various applications of pedagogical knowledge management in medical education by referring to different texts.
This research is carried out with qualitative research synthesis method and aims to achieving integrated knowledge in the field of pedagogical knowledge management. Synthesis research is a type of research which results in integrated knowledge; a knowledge that brings together diverse and scattered studies that can relate to the needs of the field of action. In order to achieve a knowledge that can solve current problems and issues that require planning or adoption of practical decisions, the integrated study evaluates and combines ongoing and finished studies (18). To study the history of research and to collect data tailored to the purpose of the research, library resources, theses, research projects and articles of Google Scholar, Science Direct, SID, Springer, IEEE, and Eric have been used. Searching for articles was done based on the keywords of Pedagogical Management, Pedagogical Knowledge, Pedagogical Pedagogy, Knowledge Management and Medical Education, Professional Development Medical Education and also with their Persian equivalent in Google Scholar and SID. In all databases, the article’s title was searched without time limit until 2018. All original researches or reviews published in Persian or English were included in the study. Articles related to the subject were selected and after reviewing, articles that met the inclusion criteria and their full text was available, entered the process of quality review through the QUESTS benchmark. Based on this criterion, each article was evaluated based on six criteria: Quality, Utility, Extent, Strength, Target, and Field, and indices A, B and C were given to each of them and it was decided to include the results based on them. Articles with A and B indices were studied. The inclusion criteria are the suitability of the title of studies with the goals of the present study, the language of the research (Persian and English) and ranking as A and B from the QUESTS criterion and credibility of the journal, and the repetition of the research title and resources with low credibility such as conference articles and books and index C articles are considered as a criterion as the exclusion criteria based on the QUESTS criterion. Analysis of the findings has been done through thematic analysis method. Thematic analysis is a method for recognizing, analyzing and reporting the patterns in the qualitative data. This method is a process for analyzing textual data and converts scattered and varied data into rich and detailed data (19). Therefore, in this study, the general themes of scientific articles have been reported and analyzed.
In the initial search, 3227 articles, books and theses were obtained with respect to the title. After removing duplicates and reviewing the articles, 381 (Figure 1) were introduced into the quality review process for QUESTS benchmarking. In total, after reviewing full texts, 66 articles were used to write the content of this research.
Figure 1. Selection, Refinement, and Organization of the articles
A review of these studies showed that no study has ever been conducted in the field of pedagogical knowledge management in medical sciences. However, by studying knowledge management in education, its wide used in medical education can be deducted, which is discussed later on.
Application of pedagogical knowledge management
1) The application of knowledge management in the lesson study process
The most important path to improve educational standards is to improve the quality of teaching in the classroom; and one of the strategies in this area is to conduct lesson study (20). Lesson Study is a new approach to the development of teachers' knowledge and the quality of education, which has been first developed for primary school teachers in Japan. In higher education, this model can also lead to the development of professors and ultimately improve the quality of education. In the process of lesson study, faculty members will have the opportunity to collaborate and interact in planning, conducting, and evaluating the process with classroom issues, find answers and apply them in practice, and end up with a grouped assessment of each other's educational work. They practice in groups, exchange and interact with each other, learn from each other, and, in addition to teaching the theoretical foundations of teaching and learning, they learn the academic and applied skills related to the teaching-learning process, the assessment of teaching methods, self-assessment and learning activities (21). In fact, they acquire and enhance their pedagogical knowledge. Cheng and Yang (2014) and Cheng (2015) used the Nonaka and Takeuchi model of knowledge management for lesson study in teachers (22-23) and see it as a major factor in promoting pedagogical knowledge.
2) The application of knowledge management in life-long learning:
Life-long learning is the solution to many of the problems that professors face in the educational process (24) and is one of the most important issues that most countries consider it to be the most important factor in education (25). Knowledge management leads to lifelong learning in professors, because professors can continuously improve their knowledge and skills through their knowledge management (26). In knowledge management, professors learn how to gain knowledge, share and organize, and ultimately use it. Thus, in current world, where knowledge is growing and changing, they can gain the required knowledge and the way to apply it, and by providing knowledge sharing, by creating synergy, they can provide the context for their own knowledge development (25).
3) Knowledge Management as a tool for the professional development of professors:
As the most influential factors in learning students, professors need professional development. Knowledge management in education, by identifying, sharing and validating knowledge can improve their performance (27). This improvement can be done through the creation and sharing knowledge (28), i.e. the exchange of educational experiences among professors and the sharing of knowledge and professional skills that lead to learning and, as a result, their professional development in education (29). Also, by enhancing innovative abilities (30) of professors, knowledge management provides the context for their professional development. One of the uses of knowledge management in professional development is the creation of a training portfolio to enhance the ability of professors (31).
4) Application of Knowledge Management in curriculum design
If we look at the process view of implementation of the curriculum, professors will no longer be considered as presenters, who are is fully aligned with the curriculum, and do not execute the curriculum without any changes according to the instructions; however, from this perspective, the professor can also play a role in curriculum planning (32). On the other hand, in addition to major curriculum planning, curriculum planning for the classroom, which is an important component of pedagogical knowledge, requires the acquisition of multiple knowledge for the needs analysis, and analysis of the existing curriculum (33). Knowledge management in curriculum can be used in the curriculum planning process (34), curriculum designing to achieve responsive curriculum (36-35), curriculum assessment (37), and curriculum development (38).
5) Application of Knowledge Management in Evidence-Based Education
Today, insufficient use of documented knowledge has led to a gap in knowledge. The reason for this is not the lack of knowledge resources, but the inadequate use of knowledge due to the lack of a comprehensive framework for storing and updating knowledge, so practical information or knowledge is not available at the right time and place of decision (39). This application in medical sciences, in addition to influencing the teaching performance of professors, the therapeutic performance of professors is also the basis for student learning. Davis (1999) believes that the purpose of evidence-based education is to use educational research and to create objective evidence through scientific methods for applying in quality education (41-40). This function is influenced by their experiences, the outstanding performance of other professors in medical sciences, namely, treatment, is traditionally based on the experience and scientific knowledge gained from their studies and limited retraining courses, and the same is passed on to the student; while in evidence-based medicine, scientific data must be collected and transformed into comprehensive knowledge to make clinical decisions wiser and less risky. Knowledge management helps professors of medical sciences as health care providers in their individual clinical experience and their visual problem solving skills (tacit knowledge) and structured information inside and outside the organization such as evidence-based guidance, studies, and more (explicit knowledge) for clinical decisions (42) and transfer these information and skills (tacit knowledge) to students.
6) Application of knowledge management in educational design
Educational design, provides a systematic process to use educational principles in the planning of educational events (43). The knowledge management system classifies the basic knowledge base of learning goals in different dimensions of learning and at different levels; and with an emphasis on the knowledge structure, provides the most suitable educational methods that are appropriate for students in the context of learning objectives (46-44). Reverse learning, as a new educational method, can be seen as an example of educational design, in which knowledge management plays an essential role. In reverse learning, students learn online content and then respond to questions that are designed by the professor and then participate in class discussions and exercises. This model is contrast to the traditional one, in which the teacher offers lectures in the classroom, and learners perform homework at home, which is why it is referred to as the reverse class (47). In reverse education, knowledge is obtained from various sources by students (converting explicit to implicit knowledge), then exchanged in the classroom (converting implicit to explicit knowledge) that is simultaneously evaluated by the professor and other students, and thus, proper knowledge is formed in the minds of students (explicit knowledge to implicit). In fact, the reverse learning approach incorporates a complete knowledge management system (48).
7) Application of knowledge management in promotion of professional qualifications (clinical reasoning and ...)
One of the qualifications needed by professors in medical sciences’ universities is clinical reasoning; so that they can transfer it to students while using it in the health process. Knowledge management can be used as a tool for clinical reasoning in the process of transferring this knowledge (49).
Proposed Methods of Using a Knowledge Manager in Education:
Many methods can be used to apply knowledge management in education, including storytelling, creation of knowledge management platforms, knowledge management system based on Web2 theory, blogging, and wiki, as well as formation of learning communities. These methods are briefly presented.
One of the proposed methods is storytelling; storytelling by professors leads to rethinking experiences (51-50). This facilitates the self-assessment of the professors and thus the improvement of the educational quality. Storytelling also provides a platform for sharing knowledge and experiences (53-52). It can also provide the context for the transfer and creation of knowledge (54).
2. Knowledge Management Platforms
Knowledge management systems provide the context for knowledge acquisition, and make storage, organization and exchange of knowledge available (55). These systems include Web 2 (56), wikis (59-57), blogs (61-60), and social networks (62). Using these systems can lead to educational justice and appropriate education for deprived areas. These systems also provide the relationship between professors, and consequently, their synergy, in the educational process.
3. Establishing a learning community
At the Carnegie Endowment, Schulman brings together a group of professors who work on research in various areas of teaching and learning (63). He sets out a developmental pattern for these learning communities. In this development model, instead of emphasizing on subjects, emphasis has been placed on transferring the individual and social experiences of teachers into a process of group and participatory thinking (64). Therefore, knowledge management can shape this learning community in two forms, either virtual or in person, leading to the promotion of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. Researches on pedagogical knowledge management (67-65) show that research in this field has been done in education and attention has not been paid to the management of pedagogical knowledge in higher education, especially in medical education.
The purpose of this study was to examine the application of pedagogical knowledge management in medical sciences in various texts. All articles that were retrieved were searched using QUESTS criteria, and only articles with good quality were used in this study, which means that there is a certainty about the results of these studies. The findings of this study, based on the analysis of the researches conducted, indicate that pedagogical knowledge management in medical sciences can be used in various fields of medical education from the professional development of professors, curriculum, lesson study, life-long learning, evidence-based education, and evidence-based medicine. The most important methods of using pedagogical knowledge management can be the creation of learning communities, the design of learning experiences, and storytelling. As the results indicate, knowledge management leads to the professional development of professors (27-29), and since the professional development of professors, make the improvement of the quality of education possible (30-29), knowledge management will be essential in the educational process. In fact, knowledge management can contribute greatly to professional development, and by establishing a conscious path of production and creation of knowledge, knowledge storage, knowledge sharing and application, it organizes the professor’s experience as a pedagogical knowledge and enables professors to convert knowledge and experiences into products, services, and processes that can be used by other professors (68).
The results of this study showed the application of knowledge management in lesson study. Coenders and Verhoef (2018) introduce lesson study as a methodology for the development of experienced and inexperienced professors (69). Through lesson study, knowledge management process is applied, meaning that knowledge is acquainted, exchanged, evaluated, and applied. In fact, lesson study provides a framework for rethinking and developing the teacher's practice that leads to the creation of new and critical knowledge (70).
Life-long learning was also a result of the application of knowledge management in education (71). Pauleen et al. (2009) believe that knowledge management in people enhances the ability to absorb knowledge, using technology skillfully, retrieve knowledge, share knowledge and gain knowledge from others, which lead to information literacy in individuals and make it a life-long learner (72). In addition, one of the characteristics of life-long learning is the use of knowledge, which is one of the fundamental components of knowledge management (73) and Marzo et al. (2016) believe that the use of knowledge will create a self-directed learning context that will influence the development of lifelong learning.
The results of this study showed the application of knowledge management in educational design (47-43). Due to the explosion of knowledge and the consequent change in the knowledge and skills required by students, as a result of the need for new methods and knowledge in the field of medical education, the use of knowledge management in educational design of education provides a platform for the use of modern design education.
The application of knowledge management in curriculum design was another result of this study (33-32). Knowledge management will provide the knowledge needed to design a curriculum. Of course, there are challenges in applying knowledge management in curriculum designing, which has been emphasized by research in this regard. The first challenge is that there are no standards for applying knowledge management in the curriculum; and second, the curriculum specialists and the curriculum accomplishers who are professors of universities are not well trained in knowledge management, and there are some deficiencies (63,75).
The findings of this study also showed that knowledge management is used in evidence-based education. Masters et al. (2018) argued that the effectiveness of education without the use of evidence would not be feasible because the professor should use evidence to decide on all stages of education, including choosing the appropriate strategy, monitoring and learning progress; it is necessary to search for, evaluate and apply knowledge, or to manage them in the sense of its pedagogical knowledge (76). What needs to be considered in this regard is that the practice of professors, both traditionally and evidence-based, is transmitted to the students and shapes the professional practice of the students in the future.
Another finding of this study is the use of knowledge management in the development of professional qualifications, such as the ability of clinical reasoning (49) to be based on decision-making (77), scientific ability (78), which ultimately constitutes the main goal of the educational system in medical sciences which is reducing mistakes which are due to inaccurate knowledge and ultimately improving community’s health (79).
The results of this study showed the application of pedagogical knowledge management in the comprehensive development of professors and the development of innovative individuals responsible for applying the best evidence in teaching and design and educational planning. According to the goal of medical education which is improving the quality of health care in the community, the use of knowledge management in the process of medical education will be important. One of the limitations of the present research was the lack of access of the researcher to the full text of the articles that were able to be included in the study.
Ethical issues (Including plagiarism, informed consent, misconduct, data fabrication and/or falsification, double publication and/or submission, redundancy, etc.) have been completely observed by the authors.
This article is part of the second chapter of the doctoral thesis with the code number 1431210. We are grateful to all those who helped us with this research.
This article is part of the PhD thesis with the code number 1431210 wich was funded by University of Birjand, Iran.
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
2. Comensoli J. Development of a prototype knowledge-management system for the purpose of improving teacher pedagogy. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the doctor of philosophy in School of Education; 2014. Available from https://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/4191/
3. Hosseini Z. The comparison between the effect of constructivism and directed instruction on student teachers’ technology integration. Journal of New Educational Approaches 2016; 10(2): 21-40. Persian.
4. Davenport TH. Thinking for a living: how to get better performances and results from knowledge workers. Harvard Business Review Press; 2005.
5. Davenport TH. Personal knowledge management and knowledge worker capabilities. Personal Knowledge Management 2016;1(1):167-88.
6. Costa NMdSC. Pedagogical training of medicine professors. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem. 2010;18(1):102-8.
7. Zhen L, Song H-T, He J-T. Recommender systems for personal knowledge management in collaborative environments. Expert Syst Appl. 2012;39(16):12536-42.
8. Akrawi NK. Bridging the gap between learning and teaching by using knowledge-based systems. Acta Univaersitatis Upsaliensis. Digital comprehensive summaries of Uppsala dissertations from the faculty of Social Sciences. Uppsala: Uppsala University; 2011.
9. Zhao J. School knowledge management framework and strategies: The new perspective on teacher professional development. Comput Human Behav. 2010;26(2):168-75.
10. Cheng E. Knowledge strategies for enhancing school learning capacity. International Journal of Educational Management 2012; 26(6):577-92.
11. Wang X, Zhang Q, Zhang M, Li X, Wang P. Teachers’ knowledge management based on knowledge innovation. Eurasia J Math Sci and Tech Ed. 2018;14(4):1317-24.
12. Qiao C, Mu Y, Ai J. Analysis for individual knowledge management of University teacher. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR); 2013 Jul 13-14. Beijing, China. Atlantis Press: France; 2013. P. 711-14.
13. Wang C, Xu X. The strategies on teacher's personal knowledge management. Proceedings of International Symposium of Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME); 2012 Aug 3. p. 390-94.
14. Zhao Zy, Xiao J. The Construction of Personal Knowledge Management Model in the Teacher′ s Professional Development [J]. Journal of Changzhi University 2009;2. Available from: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-JDNS200902018.htm.
15. Yang X. Improving teachers' knowledge management with blog platform. Proceedings of Education Technology and Training & Geoscience and remote sensing conference; 2008 Dec 21-22; Shanghai, China. Vol. 1, p. 73-76.
16.Akhterov A, Borisevich V, Lezina O, Minina O, Fedorov I. Pedagogical knowledge management system in a department on technical university. Proceedings of the Joint International IGIP-SEFI Annual Conference 2010 Sep 19-22; Trnava, Slovakia.
17. Lezina OV, Akhterov AV. Designing of the information component of pedagogical knowledge management system in a chair of technical university. Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL), 2013 International Conference on 2013 Sep 25-27; Kazan, Russia. P. 544-46.
18. Short EC, editor. Forms of curriculum inquiry. SUNY Press; 1991.
19. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77-101.
20. Dudley P, editor. Lesson study: Professional learning for our time. Routledge; 2014.
21. Farhoush M, Majedi P, Behrangi M. Application of education management and lesson study in teaching mathematics to students of second grade of public school in district 3 of Tehran. International Education Studies 2017;10(2):104-13. Available from: http://www.ccsenet.org/ journal/index.php /ies/article/view/ 66099
22. Cheng ECK. Knowledge management for school education. Singapore: Springer; 2015. Chapter 2, Knowledge management for school development; p.11-23.
23. Cheng HH, Yang HL. The antecedents of collective creative efficacy for information system development teams. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 2014; 33:1-7.
24. McAndrew P, Clow D, Taylor J, Aczel J. The evolutionary design of a knowledge network to support knowledge management and sharing for lifelong learning. Br J Educ Technol. 2004;35(6):739-46.
25. Feijoo HM, Ordaz MG, López FJ. Barriers for the implementation of knowledge management in employee portals. Procedia Comput Sci. 2015; 64:506-13.
26. Zhuang S. Personal knowledge management and M-learning in the learning society. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR 2013) 2013 Jul 13-14. Beijing, China. Atlantis Press. P. 101-5.
27. Hewitt JE. Blended learning for faculty professional development incorporating knowledge management principles [PhD thesis]. Florida: Nova Southeastern University; 2016.
28. Nancy L, Copeland Ed.D, Anne K, Bednar Ed.D. Developing an educational technology knowledge management system for PK-12 teacher professional development. 2010; 61-67. Available from: https://members.aect.org/pdf/Proceedings/proceedings10/2010I/10_11.pdf
29. Cheng E, Chan S, Wan Z, Hung V, Lim C, Lai Y, Tam C. Towards a curriculum framework for developing teachers’ personal knowledge management competencies. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Education Social Sciences and Humanities; 2015 June 8-10; Istanbul, Turkey. P.136-42.
30. Steyn GM. Continuing professional development for teachers in South Africa and social learning systems: conflicting conceptual frameworks of learning. Koers 2008;73(1):15-31.
31.Gazi ZA, Aksal FA, Oznacar B, Dagli G. Impact of prospective teachers' self control and knowledge management in compiling a reflective portfolio. Hacettepe Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi-Hacettepe University. Journal of Education 2015; 30(3):60-72.
32. AlHaqwi AI, Taha WS. Promoting excellence in teaching and learning in clinical education. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 2015; 10(1):97-101.
33. Zhang L, Han Z. Analysis on the management of college teachers' tacit knowledge. International Education Studies 2008; 1(3):21-24.
34. Agrawal S, Sharma PB, Kumar M. Knowledge management framework for improving curriculum development processes in technical education. Proceedings of Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology; 2008 Nov 11-13; Busan, South Korea. Piscataway, NJ IEEE; 2008 Vol. 2, p. 885-90.
35. Tumtuma C, Chantarasombat C, Yeamsang T. The academic knowledge management model of small schools in Thailand. International Education Studies 2015; 8(11):266-71.
36. Olszak CM, Ziemba E. Knowledge management curriculum development: Linking with real business needs. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology. 2010; 7:235-48.
37. Mitri M. A knowledge management framework for curriculum assessment. Journal of Computer Information Systems 2003; 43(4):15-24.
38. Tjong Y, Warnars HL, Adi S. Designing knowledge management model for curriculum development process: A case study in Bina Nusantara University. Proceedings of International Conference on Information Management and Technology (ICIMTech); 2016 Nov16-18; Bandung, Indonesia. IEEE. 2016. p.17-22.
39. Mol, ST, Kismihók G, Ansari F, Dornhöfer M. Integrating knowledge management in the context of evidence based learning: Two concept models aimed at facilitating the assessment and acquisition of job knowledge. In: Fathi M, editor. Chapter1. Integration of Practice-Oriented Knowledge Technology: Trends and Prospectives. 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; p. 29-45.
40. Oakley A. Research evidence, knowledge management and educational practice: early lessons from a systematic approach. London Review of Education 2003;1(1):21-33.
41. Boateng W. Knowledge management in evidence-based medical practice: does the patient matter?. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management 2010; 8(3).
42. Roshanghalb A, Lettieri E, Aloini D, Cannavacciuolo L, Gitto S, Visintin F. 2018. What evidence on evidence-based management in healthcare?. Management Decision 56(10):2069-84.
43. Aminpour F. E-learning in universities and higher education institutions. Faslname-ye ketab. 2007;18(1):217-28. Persian.
44. McIver D, Fitzsimmons S, Flanagan D. Instructional design as knowledge management: A knowledge-in-practice approach to choosing instructional methods. Journal of Management Education 2016;40(1):47-75.
45. Spector JM, Edmonds GS. Knowledge management in instructional design. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology; Information Analyses, Syracuse University. [Internet]. 2002. Available from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED465376.pdf
46. Nworie J, Dwyer F. Knowledge management & instructional design optimizing organizational knowledge. Performance Improvement 2004;43(7):27-32.
47. Geyer-Hayden B. KM competence development with flipped classroom. Procedia Computer Science 2016; 99:218-19.
48. Fidalgo-Blanco Á, Sein-Echaluce ML, García-Peñalvo FJ. Ontological flip teaching: a flip teaching model based on knowledge management. Univers Access Inform Soc. 2017;1-5.
49. Kandiah DA. Clinical reasoning and knowledge management in final year medical students: the role of student-led grand rounds. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2017; 8:683.
50.Price DM, Strodtman L, Brough E, Lonn S, Luo A. Digital storytelling: an innovative technological approach to nursing education. Nurse educ. 2015; 40(2):66-70.
51. Marín VI, Tur G, Challinor J. An interdisciplinary approach to the development of professional identity through digital storytelling in health and social care and teacher education. J Soc Work Educ. 2018; 37(3):396-412.
52. Robin BR. Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into practice 2008; 47(3):220-28.
53. Skouge JR, Rao K. Digital storytelling in teacher education: Creating transformations through narrative. Educational Perspectives 2009; 42:54-60.
54. Nam CW. The effects of digital storytelling on student achievement, social presence, and attitude in online collaborative learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments 2017;25(3):412-27.
55. Lin G. Research on the model of teacher's knowledge sharing platform based on knowledge management. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet); 2012 Apr 21; IEEE; 2012. P.1269-72.
56. Orenga-Roglá S, Chalmeta R. Methodology for the implementation of knowledge management systems 2.0. Bus Inf Syst Eng. 2017;1-9.
57. Vidal-Carreras PI, Garcia-Sabater JP, Garcia-Sabater JJ, Perello-Marin MR. Wiki as an activity learning. In: Viles E, Ormazabal M, Lleo A, editors. Closing the gap between practice and research in industrial engineering 2018. Springer, Cham. P. 381-88.
58. He A, Pan X, Xu X, Jiang Y, Chen W. Research on knowledge management of teaching administration based on wiki. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Big Data Analysis (ICBDA); 2017 Mar 10; IEEE; 2017; P. 617-21.
59. Strobel S. Collaborative working and knowledge sharing in the enterprise wiki: How teams develop concepts using sprints. 2017.
60. Kramer F, Wirth M, Jamous N, Klingner S, Becker M, Friedrich J, Schneider M. Computer-supported knowledge management in SME. Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences; 2017; HTCSS; 2017. P.4567-76.
61. Lefika PT, Mearns MA. Adding knowledge cafés to the repertoire of knowledge sharing techniques. International Journal of Information Management 2015; 35(1):26-32.
62. O’Leary DE. Knowledge management and enterprise social networking: Content versus collaboration. In: Innovations in knowledge management. Razmerita L, Phillips-Wren G, Jain LC, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016; p.45-74.
63. Shulman L. Feature essays: The scholarship of teaching and learning: A personal account and reflection. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 2011;5(1):30.
64. Shulman LS, Shulman JH. How and what teachers learn: A shifting perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies 2004; 36(2):257-71.
65. Barão A, de Vasconcelos JB, Rocha Á, Pereira R. A knowledge management approach to capture organizational learning networks. International Journal of Information Management 2017; 7(6):735-40.
66. Yilmaz R. Knowledge sharing behaviors in e-learning community: Exploring the role of academic self-efficacy and sense of community. Comput Human Behav. 2016; 63:373-82.
67. Ismail AAM. The effects of enhancing prospective EFL teachers' knowledge management strategies in virtual learning environments on their ideational flexibility and engagement. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature 2017; 6(2):154-72.
68. Comensoli J. Development of a prototype knowledge-management system for the purpose of improving teacher pedagogy [PhD thesis]. Wollongong, New South Wales: University of Wollongong, 2014.
69. Coenders F, Verhoef N. Lesson Study: professional development (PD) for beginning and experienced teachers. Professional Development in Education 2018; 30:1-4.
70. Wood P, Cajkler W. Lesson study: A collaborative approach to scholarship for teaching and learning in higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education 2018;42(3):313-26.
71. Cendon E. Lifelong Learning at Universities: Future Perspectives for Teaching and Learning. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research 2018; 7(2):81-87.
72. Pauleen D. Personal knowledge management: putting the “person” back into the knowledge equation. Online Information Review 2009;33(2):221-24.
73. Marzo RR. Role of medical education in cultivating lifelong learning skills for future doctors. Education in Medicine Journal 2018;10(3).
74. Marzo R, Badyal DK, Gupta P, Singh T. Cultivating lifelong learning skills during graduate medical training. Indian Pediatrics 2016;53(9):797-804.
75. Zhang L, Han Z. Analysis on the Management of College Teachers' Tacit Knowledge. International Education Studies 2008;1(3):21-24.
76. Masters AO, Geoff N. The role of evidence in teaching and learning. Proceedings of Research Conference on Preparing Students for Life in the 21st Century: Identifying, Developing and Assessing What Matters; 2018 Aug 4-5; Melbourne, Australia. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). 2018.
77. Shahmoradi L, Safadari R, Jimma W. Knowledge management implementation and the tools utilized in healthcare for evidence-based decision making: a systematic review. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2017; 27(5):541-58.
78. Hámornik BP, Juhász M. Knowledge sharing in medical team: knowledge, knowledge management, and team knowledge. Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences 2010;18(2):99-107.
79. Mohajan H. An Analysis of Knowledge Management for the Development of Global Health. American Journal of Social Sciences 2016;4(4):38-57.