The impact of Bybee (5E) teaching method on learning of physiology textbook among nursing students

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Young Researchers and Elite Club Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Instructor of education technology, allamehtabataba'I university.Iran

3 Master of Curriculum planning , Tabriz university, Tabriz, iran

Abstract

Background: Using active teachings methods is one of the crucial elements of today’s education. One of the active teachings methods is Bybee method. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Bybee (5E) teaching method on learning of physiology textbook among nursing students.
Methods: This study is pre-test and post-test with control group as semi-experimental design. The study population is all B.Sc. students of nursing in Medical Science University of Alborz in academic year 2015-2016. The study sample is 30 students and by convenient sampling method, the students are dedicated to two classes (15 students in each class). The study measure is learning tests with the reliability 0.89 and the face validity is supported by the lecturers (experts). For data analysis, independent t-test is used with SPSS, version 18 software.
Results: The results of study show that learning (p=0.001, 0.513) of the students being instructed by Bybee method is higher than those instructed by traditional method.
Conclusion: based on the impact of Bybee method on learning of physiology in nursing, using this teaching method is recommended in nursing and medical education.
 

Keywords


Introduction

Today, most Universities attempt to find educational methods to develop clinical decision making capacities and continuous learning of students. The trained students with traditional methods memorize the items instead of perceiving the concepts and they only receive information from the teachers. Such students at the hospital, only apply their routine works and are passive in new situations and there is no attempt for innovation to meet the existing needs [1]. It seems that today’s traditional instruction methods don’t meet the continuous changes of the community’s needs. The education department of medical groups, namely nurses apply conventional methods yet. The application of new instructional methods is important as some educational science theorists consider the mentioned methods much more significant than the scientific knowledge of a teacher [2].

Teaching is an activity at the center of all educational elements and it is the most important performance of the teacher at the classroom to increase learning. As we cannot teach any topic by any method, we need suitable instruction methods to teach different topics [3].

The instructional methods are two types: One is teacher- centered instruction or direct method, another one is learner- centered instruction or indirect method. [4]. Learner- centered instruction is the instruction in which the learners are aided by the teacher and they are responsible for their perception [4]. The learner-centered instruction stems from constructivist theory. This theory is mostly based on the creation and design of learning environments [5].

Bybee (5E) five-phase instruction method is one of the constructivism learner-centered instructional methods. This method was raised at first by Karplus, Their [6] and then was revised by Roger Bybee [7]. This method was at first based on three stage exploration Invention and discovery based on Piaget cognitive growth and was changed into constructivism by Roger Bybee. This instructional method increases the learning consequences for the students with different cognitive levels [8]. This instructional method consists of five phases as:

1-      Engaging: In this stage, the teacher evaluates the previous knowledge of learner as the administrator and helps them to perform new activities to be involved in new concepts and be motivated.

2-      Exploration: In this stage, explorative experiences are provided for students. The students use their previous knowledge and by explorative questions and tests generalize their previous knowledge.

3-      Expanding: In this stage, the learners explain their perception of concepts and the teacher by his explanations can guide the learners to deep learning.

4-      Elaboration: The learners develop the concepts they have learnt and use their learning.

5-      Evaluation: In this stage, learners evaluate themselves and the teacher evaluates the progress of learners [9].

 

Bybee method has the following advantages: Learner-centered, significant learning activities, avoiding memorization of items. Also, this method enables the learners to absorb and adjust the information via problem solving and information acquisition. Also, the learners are encouraged to more activities, critical and creative activities [10].

Heidari (2006) in a study   found that Bybee teaching method was effective in comparison to lecture method in academic achievement of students [11]. Shokuhi (2012) in a study   found that Bybee teaching method had high impact on academic achievement of students [12]. Khoftedel (2013) in a study   showed that academic achievement of students trained with Bybee method were higher than the mean score of the academic achievement of the students receiving collaborative teaching method [13].

   Guasch et al., (2010) in a study of medical students found that the experimental group who received active method had better academic performance compared to control group who were trained by traditional method [14]. Fazelian et al., (2010) in a study “found that this educational design considerably increased the learning and retention of students [15]. Moradi et al., (2012) in a study found that Bybee education method was effective on learning and creativity and this effect was for the benefit of experimental group [16].

Moradi et al., (2012) in a study   found that Bybee instruction method was effective in learning and creativity and this effect was for the benefit of experiment group [16]. Amirteimuri et al., (2014) in a study showed that this model facilitated critical thinking and learning in education [17]. In a study Acisli et al., (2011) found that Bybee model increased the learning among students [18].

Acish (2011) in a study showed that there was a significant difference between two groups regarding critical thinking and learning [19]. Walia (2012) in a study   found that this educational model had significant impact on math creativity of students [8]. Suciati et al., (2015) in a study showed that Bybee model increased the creativity of students [10].

The studies have shown that in case of using suitable education method, we can achieve effective learning in the learning - teaching process [20, 21]. The studies on using active teaching methods have supported the effectiveness of this method, but no study has been conducted on using active instruction methods in medical education namely nursing. However, the nurses have found the gap between the theory and practice in nursing [1]. One of the proposed methods to close this gap between education and practice is changing the traditional instruction system of active instruction methods. One of the active methods in teaching learning process is Bybee method. The present study aims to determine the effect of Bybee teaching method on learning of nursing students in physiology. The study hypothesis shows that:

Bybee teaching method is effective on learning of nursing students in physiology textbook.

Methods

The present study is semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test and control group. The study population consisted of 30 students and by convenient sampling method, the students are dedicated to two classes (15 students in each class) as randomly into control and experiment groups. The inclusion criteria are the tendency of students to participate in the study. At first and before entering the educational intervention, pre-test is performed on two groups. After teaching physiology by Bybee teaching method (despite traditional teaching methods can activate the learners in the learning process) an experimental group and traditional method on the control group during 6 sessions (1 hour), the learning post-test is performed on two groups. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software, version 18. The study measures include:

Pre-test and post-test of researcher built learning of nursing physiology: after raising the questions by the researcher, they were corrected by some nursing lecturers. 20 questions were defined for two tests. The objective questions were used in these tests. After the support of face validity of the 3 lecturers as experts, to measure the reliability of tests, learning test was performed by nursing students and the pre-test, post-test reliability of learning was 0.89. The scores in pre-test and post-test were ranging 0-20.

In descriptive statistics, some indices as mean and standard deviation of scores and in inferential statistics, independent t-test was applied. The inclusion criterion was the willingness to participate in the research. It should be noted that all the participants were informed about the research goals and they expressed their oral consent.

Results

The descriptive characters of subjects are shown in Table 1.

Table 1- Descriptive characteristics of subjects

 

Table.1

Educational groups

Academic level

F

Present

Control

B.Sc.

15

50%

Experiment

B.Sc.

15

50%

 

Bybee teaching method is effective on learning of nursing students in physiology

The results of analysis of statistical test for learning variable are shown in Table 2. The results are shown as follows:

Table 2- The analysis results of t-test of scores of two groups in learning

Table. 2

Group

Test

N

Mean and SD

F test

Significance level

df

t

p-value

Control

Pre-test

15

6.45±1.3

 

 

 

0.312

 

 

 

0.513

 

 

 

28

 

 

 

2.35

 

 

 

0.001

Post-test

15

8.78±1.34

Experiment

Pre-test

15

7.21±1.12

Post-test

15

14.23±1.14

 

As shown in Table 2, as the calculated t (t=2.35) is bigger than t of Table (t=1.65) at the α=0.05 and the test is one way, by confidence interval 95%, we can say the mean difference of experiment group is higher than the mean of scores of control group. Thus, the study hypothesis regarding the effect of Bybee teaching method on learning in physiology textbook is supported.

 Discussion

This study aims to evaluate the effect of Bybee teaching method on learning of students of nursing in physiology textbook. The present study is a new research in medical science and there is no in this regard in Iran. The results of study regarding the hypothesis “The effect of Bybee teaching method on learning of nursing students in  physiology textbook showed that Bybee teaching method increased the learning of students. The research finding was in line with those of Heidari which found that Bybee teaching method was effective in comparison to lecture method in academic achievement of students [11], shokuhi which found that Bybee teaching method had high impact on academic achievement of students [12], Khoftedel which showed that the academic achievement of students trained with Bybee method were higher than the mean score of academic achievement of the students receiving collaborative teaching method [13], Guasch et al., in a study on medical students found that the experimental group who received active method had better academic performance compared to control group who were trained by traditional method [14], Fazelian et al., which found that this educational design considerably increased the learning and retention of students [15], Moradi et al., which found that Bybee education method was effective on learning and creativity and this effect was for the benefit of experimental group [16], Amir Teimuri et al., which showed that this model facilitated critical thinking and learning in education [17] Acish  which showed that there was a significant difference between two groups regarding critical thinking and learning [19], Walia which found that this educational model had significant impact on math creativity of students [8], Suciati et al., which showed that Bybee model increased the creativity of students [10] showing that Bybee method increased learning, academic achievement and creativity.

 Conclusion

This study showed that the Bybee method in physiology increased the learning of nursing students. The increase of learning among the students who received Bybee instruction is analyzed as: This method is a constructivism method and this emphasizes on keeping the learners active during the learning process. The higher the engagement of learners in learning process, the better the learning and retention.

Recommendations of study

Based on the study findings, it is proposed to the active administrators in education namely medical education to use Bybee teaching method to make the learner active during the learning process and this increases the learning and memorizing of students. 

 

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